The 2° Standard Observer models the center of normal human vision, which is the area most critical to color perception. An alternative is the CIE 1964 10° Standard Observer which models a wider and less color sensitive area of human color vision. In practice, the choice of the observer model only affects the measurement of the reflectance target when verifying colorfastness using a spectrophotometer. As the Lab coordinate system does not impose any particular observer model, the choice has few consequences for the workflow or other areas of color management.
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